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Endpoint Error Handling

The last step of message processing inside WSO2 Micro Integrator is to send the message to a service provider (see also Working with Mediators) by sending the message to a listening service endpoint. During this process, transport errors can occur. For example, the connection might time out, or it might be closed by the actual service. Therefore, endpoint error handling is a key part of any successful Micro Integrator deployment.

Messages can fail or be lost due to various reasons in a real TCP network. When an error occurs, if the Micro Integrator is not configured to accept the error, it will mark the endpoint as failed, which leads to a message failure. By default, the endpoint is marked as failed for quite a long time, and due to this error, subsequent messages can get lost.

To avoid lost messages, you can configure error handling at the endpoint level. You should also run a few long-running load tests to discover errors and fine-tune the endpoint configurations for errors that can occur intermittently due to various reasons.

Example 1: Using endpoint error codes

This example demonstrates a simple use case where error codes are used to move an endpoint into Timeout state.

Synapse configuration

Following is a sample REST API configuration that we can used to implement this scenario. See the instructions on how to build and run this example.

<api xmlns="http://ws.apache.org/ns/synapse" name="TestAPI" context="/test">
   <resource methods="GET">
      <inSequence>
         <call>
            <endpoint name="Sample_First" statistics="enable" >
                <address uri="http://localhost/myendpoint" statistics="enable" trace="disable">
                    <timeout>
                        <duration>60000</duration>
                    </timeout>

                    <markForSuspension>
                        <errorCodes>101504, 101505</errorCodes>
                        <retriesBeforeSuspension>3</retriesBeforeSuspension>
                        <retryDelay>1</retryDelay>
                    </markForSuspension>

                    <suspendOnFailure>
                        <errorCodes>101500, 101501, 101506, 101507, 101508</errorCodes>
                        <initialDuration>1000</initialDuration>
                        <progressionFactor>2</progressionFactor>
                        <maximumDuration>60000</maximumDuration>
                    </suspendOnFailure>

                </address>
            </endpoint>
         </call>
        <respond/>
      </inSequence>
   </resource>
</api>

In this example, the errors 101504 and 101505 move the endpoint into the "Timeout" state. At that point, three requests can fail for one of these errors before the endpoint is moved into the "Suspended" state. Additionally, errors 101500, 101501, 101506, 101507, and 101508 will put the endpoint directly into the "Suspended" state. If a 101503 error occurs, the endpoint will remain in the "Active" state as you have not specified it under suspendOnFailure . The default setting to suspend the endpoint for all error codes except the ones specified under markForSuspension will apply only if you do not specify error codes under suspendOnFailure .

When the endpoint is first suspended, the retry happens after one second. Because the progression factor is 2, the next suspension duration before retry is two seconds, then four seconds, then eight, and so on until it gets to sixty seconds, which is the maximum duration we have configured. At this point, all subsequent suspension periods will be sixty seconds until the endpoint succeeds and is back in the Active state, at which point the initial duration will be used on subsequent suspensions.

Build and run (Example 1)

Create the artifacts:

  1. Set up WSO2 Integration Studio.
  2. Create an ESB Solution project.
  3. Create the REST API with the configurations given above.
  4. Deploy the artifacts in your Micro Integrator.

Invoke the sample API by executing the following command:

curl -v -X GET "http://localhost:8290/test"

Example 2: Configuration for Endpoint Dynamic Timeout

Let's look at a sample configuration where you have dynamic timeout for the endpoint.

Synapse configuration

Following is a sample REST API configuration that we can used to implement this scenario. See the instructions on how to build and run this example.

<sequence name=dynamic_sequence xmlns="http://ws.apache.org/ns/synapse">
  <property name="timeout" scope="default" type="INTEGER" velue=20000>
  <send>
      <endpoint>
          <address uri="http://localhost/myendpoint">
          <timeout>
            <duration>{get-property('timeout')}</duration>
            <responseAction>discard</responseAction>
          </timeout>
      </endpoint>
  </send>
</sequence>

In this example, the timeout value is defined using a Property mediator outside the endpoint configuration. The timeout parameter in the endpoint configuration is then evaluated against an XPATH expression that is used to reference and read the timeout value. Using this timeout values can be configured without having to change the endpoint configuration.

Info

You also have the option of defining a dynamic timeout for the endpoint as a local entry.

<localEntry key="timeout"><![CDATA[20000]]>
   <description/>
</localEntry>

Build and run (Example 2)

Create the artifacts:

  1. Set up WSO2 Integration Studio.
  2. Create an ESB Solution project.
  3. Create the REST API with the configurations given above.
  4. Deploy the artifacts in your Micro Integrator.

Example 3: Dynamic endpoint failover management

Let's look at a sample configuration where you have dynamic timeout with failover management for the endpoint.

Synapse configuration

Following is a sample REST API configuration that we can used to implement this scenario. See the instructions on how to build and run this example.

<api xmlns="http://ws.apache.org/ns/synapse" name="TestAPI" context="/test">
   <resource methods="GET">
      <inSequence>
         <call>
            <endpoint name="NoSuspendEndpoint"> 
               <address uri="http://localhost:9000/services/SimpleStockQuoteService"> 
                   <timeout> 
                       <duration>30000</duration> 
                       <responseAction>fault</responseAction> 
                   </timeout> 
                   <suspendOnFailure> 
                       <errorCodes>-1</errorCodes> 
                       <initialDuration>0</initialDuration> 
                       <progressionFactor>1.0</progressionFactor> 
                       <maximumDuration>0</maximumDuration> 
                   </suspendOnFailure> 
                   <markForSuspension> 
                       <errorCodes>-1</errorCodes> 
                   </markForSuspension> 
               </address> 
            </endpoint>
         </call>
         <respond/>
      </inSequence>
   </resource>
</api>

If a dynamic URL is used as the endpoint and if one URL fails, the endpoint is suspended even though the URL is changed dynamically. Follow the steps given below to avoid suspension or to re-enable the endpoint.

  • Disabling endpoint suspension: If you do not want the endpoint to be suspended at all, you can configure the Timeout , MarkForSuspension , and suspendOnFailure settings as shown in the following example.
  • Use <errorCodes>-1</errorCodes> to disable suspension for the endpoint under the MarkForSuspension and suspendOnFailure settings.
  • Use <responseAction>fault</responseAction> under the <timeout> setting.
  • Define the <initialDuration> and <maximumDuration> properties as 0 under the suspendOnFailure setting.

Follow any of the options given below to re-enable an endpoint that is suspended.

  • Define the error codes that cause endpoint failure.
    For example, use <errorCodes>101504, 101505</errorCodes> to exclude the error codes from suspendOnFailure and markForSuspension under endpoint configuration, so that the endpoint does not get suspended for these error codes.
  • If the endpoint is defined as a registry resource, activate the endpoint through the Java Management Extension (JMX).
    For example, use the switchOn operation for that particular endpoint in the JConsole, which comes under MBeans > org.apache.synapse > Endpoint . This activates the endpoint again.

Build and run (Example 3)

Create the artifacts:

  1. Set up WSO2 Integration Studio.
  2. Create an ESB Solution project.
  3. Create the REST API with the configurations given above.
  4. Deploy the artifacts in your Micro Integrator.

Set up the back-end service:

  1. Download the stockquote_service.jar.
  2. Open a terminal, navigate to the location of the downloaded service, and run it using the following command:

    java -jar stockquote_service.jar

Invoke the sample API by executing the following command:

curl -v -X GET "http://localhost:8290/test"

You will not observe any endpoint suspended logs for the above API call.

Example 4: Configuring retry

You can configure the Micro Integrator to enable or disable retry for an endpoint when a specific error code occurs.

Synapse configuration

<endpoint>
  <address uri="http://localhost:9001/services/LBService1">
    <retryConfig>
      <disabledErrorCodes>101503</disabledErrorCodes>
    </retryConfig>
  </address>
</endpoint>
<endpoint>
  <address uri="http://localhost:9002/services/LBService1">
    <retryConfig>
      <enabledErrorCodes>101503</enabledErrorCodes>
    </retryConfig>
  </address>
</endpoint>

In this example, if the error code 101503 occurs when trying to connect to the first endpoint, the endpoint is not retried, whereas in the second endpoint, the endpoint is always retried if error code 101503 occurs. You can specify enabled or disabled error codes (but not both) for a given endpoint.

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